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          成考英語議論文寫作方法與技巧多用書面語

          2020-01-17 03:24:45 作者:明德老師 人氣:1,095 成考資料

          英語議論文的寫作,大多有具體要點(即論點或論據)的限定,所以并不需要如何地縱橫捭闔,如何地旁征博引。但是,麻雀雖小,五臟俱全,一篇100來字的議論文,同樣必須邏輯嚴密,結構清晰,語言洗練,必須論有中心,言而有據。以下筆者試從篇章結構、句子修辭和詞匯運用等三個方面來談一談寫好一篇小議論文的基本方法和技巧。

          一、篇章結構

          (一)先有規矩,然后才能從心所欲,不逾矩

          議論文的寫作,住往從正反兩方面來論述,且都有其約定俗成的議論模式,即從“主題句一正面論述,反面論述一結論”四大塊去營造文章的基本結構(四塊論)。例如,某題目要求論述“學校規定‘課間學生只能呆在自己的教室里’對嗎?”這一話題。如果作者認為學校的規定不對,他就應該在文章第一塊(段)亮出自己的觀點:There is currently much discussion about whether students should stay in their own classrooms or not during break times.Personally I believe that—。而第二塊應該從正面論述“課間不能只呆在自己的教室里”的理由。比如可以說:I would argue that break times are our only opportunity to choose what we want to do. 第三塊則從反面觀點,即“課間只能呆在自己的教室里”出發,批駁對方觀點或進一步闡述己方觀點。例如可以說:Another reason why people say that students have to stay in their own classes at break times is that it would be difficult to organize dinners.最后一塊(段)則用不同的語言再次強調已方觀點。乍一看去,議論文“四塊論”仿佛有“八股文”的嫌疑,但“四塊論”符合人的認知規律,所以值得多多模仿和操練。

          (二)圍繞中心論述,確保論述的內容直接為主題服務

          在上例中,“學生課間時不能只呆在自己的教室里”是主題句,論述時應該緊緊圍繞它。有的同學在寫的時候先說“學生若課間被允許到其他班級活動,就可以交到更多的朋友”,然后又說“交到更多朋友就可以學到更多知識”,“學到更多知識就可以為社會做出更大的貢獻”……這種論述方式貌似環環相扣,承前啟后,實則是中心渙散的流水賬,說到最后,不僅讀者會一頭霧水,連作者自己都會忘了自己在說什么。

          (三)確立并寫好論點,并將其置于每一段的段首

          整篇文章有整篇文章的中心論點,每一段落有每一段落的分論點。選取論點時要問一問自己:這一論點是否會讓自己信服?如果—個論點連自己都說服不了,就要放棄它。段落論點的呈現不能羞羞答答,猶報琵琶半遮面,也不能深藏不露,讓讀者去總結和歸納,而必須在文章開篇或段落開頭就亮出來。論點置于篇首或段首,才能綱舉目張,也是確保不跑題的前提。以下兩個例子中,第一個結構松散,群龍無首,令讀者不知所云;而第二個例子則中心突出,章法嚴謹。請看:

          1.Firstly,it is very convenient in daily life.There are many shops and supermarkets in a city.I can buy everything I need easily in these places.When I am sick,I can easily see a doctor in any clinic or hospital.Transport services are good in a city.when I want to go somewhere,I can take a bus,a train or something else.There are also many kinds of entertainment in a city.Public buildings(such as libraries)and parks can easity be found in a city,too.

          2.First.it is convenient and comfortable to live in a city.To begin with,there is good housing in a city,as all the houses and flats are well-equipped with good facilities and surrounded by modern amenities such as places of entertainment,public libraries and parks.

          而中心句的寫法也有講究。中心句必須能高度概括所在段落的論據,它的關鍵詞應該在每—個論據中都有重復或適當體現。那種無關痛癢的敘述或說明性的句子,是不適宜用作中心句的。例如:

          1.Students always feel relaxed and happy during breaks.(敘述性句子)

          2.Break times are scheduled for about 10 minutes.(說明性句子)

          以下即是論述“學校規定‘課間學生只能呆在自己的班級里’對嗎?”的一篇學生習作:

          Although some people believe that students should stay in their own classrooms during break times,I would like to argue that we should be allowed to spend break times in another class.

          The most important reason for believing that is that many students have friends in other classes.We spend all day in our own classroom,and break times are the only time we have to spend with other friends.It can become very tedious(令人厭倦的)to have to spend even more time with the same people.

          A further reason for allowing student to choose where they spend their break times is that it would stop arguements.If students are forced to spend time with classmates who are not good friends,they can annoy each other.This leads to problems that have to be sorted out by teachers.

          Teachers argue that we all should stay in our own classes,because it is then easier to know what is going on.They say that it is difficult to keep track of students when they are walking round the corridors.However,students could be given the chance to choose a different classroom to spend the whole break time in.That would mean that there would not be any students in the corridors.

          As I have explained,although it might be a little easier to manage when everyone stays in their own classroom,it would make break times happier for all students if they were allowed to choose where they spent their time.

          這篇范文符合“四塊論”的基本模式,正反論述兼顧,結構嚴謹,中心突出。

          二、句子修辭

          (一)應用修辭,增強說服力

          適當采用比喻、頭韻(即連續數個單詞的頭音或頭字母相同)、夸張等修辭手法,采用幽默、平行結構等寫作手法,可以把道理說得更加透徹,把觀點表達得更加鮮明,把平淡的內容表現得更加生動,從而更好地傳遞信息,增添文采,激發讀者的共鳴。例如:

          1.Many people have tried a thousand times before they achieve their goals.(夸張)

          2.Only a madman would choose to live in a modern city.(夸張)

          3.Our life would be like soup without salt or flowers without sunlight.(比喻)

          4.The best way is to reduce,reuse and recycle.(頭韻)

          5.For children.the Internet is another way to waste more hours.(幽默)

          6.If you want to earn a satisfactory grade in the training program,you must arrive punctually,you must behave courteously,and you must study conscientiously.(平行結構)

          值得注意的是,比喻等修辭格的使用及諺語等的引用關乎作者對英語文化的理解,因為它們在英語中的意義往往與我們的理解大相徑庭,很容易誤用。只有多多學習,認真分析它們的應用環境,使用起來才能錦上添花。如果沒有十分的把握,切不可生搬硬套,否則會適得其反。

          (二)表達到位,才能言之成理通常。

          作者對自己論述的觀點是清楚的,但在將觀點傳達給讀者時,往往因為用詞不準確,邏輯欠嚴密,或因受中國式思維的干擾而令表達不到位,結果使讀者如墮五里霧中。作者應站在讀者的立場上考慮問題,始終牢記“讀者明不明白”才是判斷寫作是否成功的最重要標準。請看以下幾個表達不到位的例句及其改正方法。

          1.They gave me what I need,but not what I want.析:want可譯為“想要”。從漢語角度看,整個句子是流暢的,但從英語的邏輯上看,want與need的意義極易混淆,因此整個句子意義表達不到位,含糊不清??梢愿臑椋篢hey have given me what I need but not What I often ask for.

          2.Maybe there are also some disadvantages of living in a city,but I think they are less important.I feel convenient and comfortable.析:句子后半部分的邏輯關系未交代清楚,令人有“前語不搭后語”的感覺??梢愿臑椋篢heere are surely disadvantages of living in a city,too,but they are less important and tend to be de-emphasized.For the sake of the advantages mentioned above,I prefer to live in a city.

          3.Different people have different choices.Some people like living in a city and some people like living in a village.析:Choice的含義十分寬泛,因此與后面的like不相稱,應改為:Different people have different likes and dislikes.Some like to live in a city,others like to live in a village.

          4.The people,the society and so on were quite different from now.析:The people,the society依然不足以讓讀者完全理解要論述的話題,可改為:The peopIe,the society and other aspects of life were quite different from now.

          5.Thieves should be sentenced for what they have done.析:使用sentence未免言過其實,應改為:Thieves should be punished for their wrongdoing.

          (三)簡潔洗練,要言不煩語言簡潔有力。

          文風干凈利落,是議論文的重要特征之一。應該指出的是,好句子并不以長短論英雄,長句未必不簡潔,短句未必不哆咳。作者在寫作時,只要力求做到“章無冗段,段無冗句,句無冗詞”,就可改變當斷不斷、拖泥帶水的現象。

          1.The Are No Good Reasons Why Boys and Girls Should Not Be Treated Equally.析:此為一標題句,此作者濫用雙重否定,從而使句子過長。宜改為:Boys and Girls Should Be Given Equal Treatment.

          2.For instance,I knew how to communicate with other people and how to look after myself.The most important thing was that I learn to be independent.析:從意義上講,look after myself與independent關系緊密,可以合在一起。句子可改為:For instance,I knew how to communicate with others and how to look after myself as an independent girl.

          3.Moreover,as some girls study harder than boys,they may be even superior.析:moreover后若繼續用從句,就會干擾讀者的思維??筛臑椋篗oreover,some girls are very dilgent.As a result,they may prove superior to ordinary boys.

          4.What I mean to say is that well-intentioned law-makers sometimes make fools of themselves.析:what從句并未提供新信息,故可刪去。句子可改為:Well-intentioned law—makers sometimes make fools of themselves.

          三、詞匯運用

          (一)多用書面語,少用口頭語

          相對口頭語而言,書面語更能增添文章的厚重感和讀者對文章的信任感。下列每一組句子中,第二句都使用了書面語言,用詞更加規范,因而比前一個句子略勝—籌。

          1.We still have the social problems.

          The same social problems still exist today.

          2.For me,there is no need for further protection of woodlands.

          As far as I‘m concerned,further protection of woodlands is not needed.

          3.With the development of computer technology, commercial information exchange is becoming easier.

          Computers have greatly influenced business communication.

          4.Everything has two sides and this problem is quite the same.

          Everything has two sides and this issue is not an exception.

          (二)使用連接詞在句子間使用連接詞,能使文章脈絡更加清晰,邏輯關系更加流暢。

          例如:

          1.The water was polluted.As a result,the fish died.

          2.However,others think we should have junk food.

          3.On the other hand packaging can have many disadvantages.

          4.Firstly many people die of passive smoking(被動吸煙)and secondly it can aggravate(使……惡化)lung diseases.

          相關的連接詞還有:On the contrary,all in all,in short,generally,worse still,on the other hand,in conclusion,as a consequence,hence,also,personally,furthermore,definitely,surely,undoubtedly,obviously,additionally,in addition,moreover,consequently,clearly,besides,as well,likewise,in my opinion,for the sake of,last but not the least,to begin with,firstly(first),etc.

          很多時候,一些常用的句式或句子也能承上啟下,使相關的信息得到巧妙的過渡和銜接。例如:

          The main reason is that…

          I can‘t agree more.

          Another thing we can‘t forget is that…

          There is every reason to believe that…

          As we all know…

          總而言之,一篇好的議論文,總是在結構、邏輯和語言等方面略勝一籌。

          版權聲明:本文由作者上傳并發布(或網友轉載),免費轉載出于非商業性學習目的。未經作者許可,不可轉載。

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